Anthropologist Leslea J. Hlusko (U. of Illinois) had some stern advice for her paleoanthropologist colleagues in PNAS1 recently. Noting that “Competing interpretations of human origins and evolution have recently proliferated despite the accelerated pace of fossil discovery,” she thinks an approach is needed that integrates genetics and development with the search for bones. She takes issue with three presumptions that can confuse and mislead the interpretation of fossils:Presumption 1: Anatomical Traits are Independent.Genetic studies, on the contrary, have shown that multiple traits can be linked because of pleiotropic effects. Also, the number of labeled traits may not correspond to the number of genes affecting those traits.Presumption 2: Most Anatomical Traits Are Adaptively Informative.Pleiotropic effects may also blur the interpretation of single traits. In Lucy, for instance, the genes that shorten fingers may simultaneously shorten toes. The shortened fingers, therefore, may not be a clue that the animal was spending less time in trees.Presumption 3: Small-Scale Morphological Change Is Almost Always Parsimonious.This is not always the case. Measurements of trends in enamel thickness on teeth, for instance, appear to have no correlation to sex or tooth size. Rapid changes can occur with dietary change, not evolution. “All of this clearly makes the paleontologist’s task of identifying the most phylogenetically informative traits difficult and complex.”She warns bone hunters to recognize that they need to take genetics and development into account. “The standard response to controversy in paleontology is that more fossils will resolve the issue.” Not necessarily; “even for species with adequate fossil records, new and different approaches like those suggested here will be necessary.”1Leslea J. Hlusko, “Integrating the genotype and phenotype in hominid paleontology,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA, March 2, 2004, vol. 101, no. 9, pp. 2653�2657. Published online before print.This is a revealing article that basically says, “everything you know is wrong, and we hope we can figure out the truth some day by starting over.” Like so often reported here, it is more admission of ignorance and promises of futureware. Quote-hunters might find a bonanza in this article. Not only that, Hlusko points out the tremendous complexity of genetic and developmental mechanisms. She mentions that more than 250 genes are known to be involved in the development of dentition. Are we being asked to believe that those genes all evolved by chance, and that they must mutate together to keep an animal having a proper bite? What if a tooth on the upper jaw mutates, but the one on the lower jaw doesn’t? Teeth need to match. Remember how much propaganda the Darwinists got out of one tooth in the case of Nebraska man? (It turned out to be a pig’s tooth.) Even today, a debater for evolution claimed that a good anatomist can tell a lot about a creature from a tooth. But if all you have is a tooth, even if it is the whole tooth, and nothing but the tooth, would it convince a jury? Not if they read this article first. Things are not looking good for the pseudoscience of human evolution. Digging up bones in Africa may be a sport, but interpreting what they mean is often a function of the storytelling ability of the discoverer. Does hominid dentition tell us anything about human ancestry? Don’t bite on it.(Visited 20 times, 1 visits today)FacebookTwitterPinterestSave分享0
25 October 2010 Deputy President Kgalema Motlanthe concluded a two-day working visit to Syria last week, saying the two countries were working towards removing all remaining obstacles to increased trade and investment between them. Motlanthe’s visit, which ended on Friday was aimed at strengthening existing relations between the two countries, and creating an enabling environment for increased trade and investment between the two states. The trip, which coincided with that of a group from the Elders – formed by Nelson Mandela in 2007 – was also Pretoria’s effort to contribute to the resolution of the decades-old Palestine-Israel crisis. The visit saw the signing of two cooperation agreements. Motlanthe’s spokesman, Thabo Masebe, said the agreements would enable businesses from South Africa and Syria to take advantage of the excellent diplomatic relations between the two countries to strengthen business ties and increase economic activity. “South Africa and Syria will explore cooperation in the areas of education, information and communication technology, science and technology, agriculture and forestry, financial services and construction,” Masebe said. A South Africa-Syria Business Forum was also established to create a platform for business people from both countries to work together on projects. South Africa and Syria are now working on key outstanding agreements, including agreements for the protection of investments and the avoidance of double taxation. This will protect South African businesses wishing to invest in the Syrian economy. A business council will also be formed. During the visit, Motlanthe met with representatives of Palestinian political organisations, where he received a briefing on the ongoing Palestinian struggle for self-determination. He offered South Africa’s continued support for the Palestinian people in their quest for self-determination. Source: BuaNews
Real Madrid coach Solari frustrated after Villarreal draw: We had it in our handsby Carlos Volcano10 months agoSend to a friendShare the loveReal Madrid coach Santiago Solari admitted frustration after their 2-2 draw with Villarreal.Santi Cazorla scored twice as Villarreal denied Real Madrid a chance to reduce the gap to La Liga leaders Barcelona.Cazorla’s curler earned the hosts an early lead before Karim Benzema’s header made it 1-1 after seven minutes.Raphael Varane’s header put Real ahead, but Cazorla’s late header moved Villarreal out of the relegation zone. Solari said, “We had it in our hands, we had to kill the match, then they pressed and scored the equaliser, they squeezed a lot, they are at home, they need the points. They attacked very well and we lacked depth.”On his decision to substitute Luka Modric, Solari explained, “He has given everything, Modric played with flu and has given us a lot of energy, everything he had, he made a great effort and a great match, when you leave everything you do not have energy for 90 minutes. “There are other players that can play, they are not Ballon d’Ors, but (Fede) Valverde at the moment he entered gave us energy and control, he has that stride and we are happy with the contribution of the youth.” About the authorCarlos VolcanoShare the loveHave your say
Everton winger Vlasic: Big Sam’s football was awfulby Paul Vegas10 months agoSend to a friendShare the loveEverton winger Nikola Vlasic has taken aim at former manager Sam Allardyce.Now on-loan at CSKA Moscow, Vlasic found himself out of favour and struggling for playing time under Allardyce last season.”Everything changed after (Ronald) Koeman left,” Vlasic told Sportske Novosti.”The football played under Big Sam was awful, if it could even be called football.”In such football I do not have a place. The football team was terrified by everything – the fans mostly.” TagsTransfersAbout the authorPaul VegasShare the loveHave your say
Allegri learning English as he targets Man Utd jobby Paul Vegas23 days agoSend to a friendShare the loveFormer Juventus boss Max Allegri has been learning English as he targets a switch to Manchester United.Red Devils manager Ole Gunnar Solskjaer is under pressure after a slow start to the season, with his team sitting in tenth on the Premier League table.The Guardian says Allegri would be keen to replace Solskjaer at Old Trafford if the Norwegian is sacked.The Italian, who left his role at Juventus, would be willing to take the job at United even if the club do not quality for next season’s Champions League.He has been taking English lessons in preparation and would be placed on a two or three man shortlist by United should Solskjaer be sacked.However, the club do not have any plans to part ways with a coach they only recently signed to a three-year extension. TagsTransfersAbout the authorPaul VegasShare the loveHave your say
Under-pressure Villarreal Coach Javi Calleja believes Sunday’s late defeat to Alaves was contentious because of a dubious foul.Javi Calleja’s men are fighting the drop after securing only nine points from ten league games to date this season one place ahead of La Liga’s relegation zone.“It hurts to lose when the points escape you at the end, it is painful” Calleja admitted to reporters after the game, as cited by Football Espana.Report: Former United man Rossi almost went to Barca George Patchias – September 9, 2019 Former Manchester United starlet Giuseppe Rossi almost joined Barcelona.Currently without a club, and having trained most recently back at his old stomping ground of…“We thought we were on course for a good result and we have lost it, now we have to turn the page and refocus ahead of our game in the Copa del Rey.“We were focused entering this game and we knew it would be a matter of details against a rival who can do a lot of damage from set pieces, and in the end, the tie came down to a dubious foul.“We need to keep working and re-find the intensity we showed against Atletico Madrid and Rapid Vienna.”
Real Madrid captain Sergio Ramos refuses to take Al Ain lightly ahead of this evening’s Club World Cup finalFollowing Wednesday’s 3-1 win against Japanese side Kashima Antlers, Real will now take on local team Al Ain.The European champions are gunning for a third World Cup in a row and are considered the strong favourites.But Ramos knows all too well that in football anything can happen and, therefore, intends to stay on guard as Real attempt to make more history today.“We’ve got another chance to retain the Club World Cup,” said Ramos on the club website.Mourinho: “Lionel Messi made me a better coach” Andrew Smyth – September 14, 2019 Jose Mourinho believes the experience of going up against Barcelona superstar Lionel Messi at Real Madrid made him a greater coach.“No club has won it three years in a row and we’re really looking forward to the final and are hoping to take the trophy home before going on holiday”“We’re really looking forward to the game and we have the utmost respect for the opponent, River were favourites, but we saw that the badge alone doesn’t win you anything.“Physicality and intensity prevail in football. We know that they have the swede up top, the Brazilian on the left or the Egyptian in the midfield.“Football is much more even these days and we’ll go out knowing that it will be a very difficult match”.The World Cup final between Real and Al Ain will take place at the Zayed Sports City Stadium with kick-off set for 17:30 (CET).
Facebook0TwitterEmailPrintFriendly分享Homer Electric Association, Inc. (HEA) members will see an increase in their monthly bills beginning January 1, 2018. According to a press release, HEA proposes an increase to the Cost of Power Adjustment (COPA) rate from $0.06805 to $0.07077 per kilowatt hour, which is an increase of 4.0%. The COPA is adjusted on a quarterly basis and primarily reflects the cost of natural gas used to generate power for HEA members. The average residential member who uses 550 kWh/month will see a $1.49 increase in their bill.