A subpopulation of the immune cells targeted by HIV may play an important role in controlling viral loads after initial infection, potentially helping to determine how quickly infection will progress. In the Feb. 29 issue of Science Translational Medicine, a team of researchers from the Ragon Institute of MGH, MIT and Harvard describe finding a population of HIV-specific CD4 T cells — cells traditionally thought to direct and support activities of other immune cells — that can directly kill HIV-infected cells.“We observed the emergence of CD4 T cells able to kill HIV-infected cells in those patients who are able to control viral replication soon after acute infection,” says Harvard Medical School Assistant Professor of Medicine Hendrik Streeck, a Ragon Institute faculty member and senior author of the report. “These cells appear very early in HIV infection, and we believe they may set the stage for the course of the disease.”The primary role of CD4 T cells is to assist other cells of the immune system; and their importance is illustrated by how completely the immune response collapses after the cells, the main cellular targets of HIV, are destroyed. Ironically, CD4 cells that are specifically targeted against HIV are preferentially infected and depleted by the virus.However, although HIV-specific CD4 cells have not been a major focus of vaccine research, these cells may have an important role in controlling HIV infection. “Every successful licensed vaccine induces CD4 T cell responses to some extent,” Streeck explains, “and we know from many other viral infections that the success of the immune system in gaining control is best achieved in the presence of strong CD4 T cell responses.”To investigate whether CD4 T cell responses are important in the early control of HIV infection, the Ragon Institute team enrolled a group of 11 volunteers who were in the earliest stages of HIV infection, a time when viral levels are exceedingly high. A year into the study, participants were divided into two groups based on the level of HIV in their bodies — one group was able to keep HIV at low levels while the other group apparently had no immune control over HIV replication. Retrospective analysis of samples taken throughout the year showed striking differences in the CD4 T cell responses in both groups. While the HIV-specific CD4 responses in the group that did not control HIV replication quickly dropped and stayed low, the same response increased significantly in participants able to effectively control the virus, suggesting a role for HIV-specific CD4 cells in viral control.Additional experiments revealed that the HIV-specific CD4 T cell responses showed activity associated with cell-killing and could even destroy HIV-infected macrophages — an unusual function for CD4 T cells, which have traditionally been seen as helper cells. In addition, the researchers determined that the presence of a specific cell-death protein called granzyme A prominently distinguished HIV-specific CD4 cells of participants maintaining a lower “viral set point” from those less able to control viral levels.To validate these findings, the researchers examined a larger group of HIV-infected individuals and found that those with higher levels of granzyme A in their HIV-specific CD4 T cell response immediately after infection progressed more slowly to AIDS and did not require antiretroviral therapy as quickly as did those with lower levels of the protein. “The key baseline difference between these two groups has to do with the quality, not the quantity, of the HIV-specific CD4 T cell response,” explains Streeck. “In those who progressed to a lower viral set point, the early CD4 response was dominated by granzyme A expression, which was highly predictive of the rate of disease progression.”Associating a particular CD4 T cell activity with more successful suppression of viral levels suggests that inducing such responses with a vaccine may be beneficial, Streeck notes. In addition, the association of granzyme A expression with a more effective HIV-specific CD4 cell response suggests that measuring levels of the protein may allow prediction of disease outcome at the earliest stages of infection, something that is not currently possible. Future studies will need to explore the mechanisms underlying the cell-killing activities of the CD4 cell response and the functional and prognostic role of granzyme A.The lead author of the Science Translational Medicine report is Damien Soghoian of the Ragon Institute.The study was funded by the National Institute for Allergy and Infectious Diseases of the National Institutes of Health.
‘Beowulf,’ as it was told Oberon to host reading of the ancient epic poem about monsters, a dragon, and a hero You say John, I say Paul. But what does stylometry say? Using those metrics, Krieger said, the team combed through the “Beowulf” text, and found it to be consistent throughout — a result that supports the theory of single authorship.“Across many of the proposed breaks in the poem, we see that these measures are homogeneous,” Krieger said. “So as far as the actual text of Beowulf is concerned, it doesn’t act as though there is supposed to be a major stylistic change at these breaks. The absence of major stylistic shifts is an argument for unity.”The study is just the latest effort to pin down the poem’s mysterious background.“There are two big debates about ‘Beowulf,’” Krieger explained. “The first is when it was composed, because the date of composition affects our understanding of how ‘Beowulf’ is to be interpreted. For instance, whether it is a poem near or far in time from the conversion to Christianity is an important question.”The second debate among “Beowulf” academics, Krieger said, is the one he and his colleagues were considering.“The first edition that was widely available to the public was published in 1815, and the unity of the work was almost immediately attacked,” Krieger said. “From high school, everyone remembers the battle with Grendel and Grendel’s mother, and maybe the dragon, but if you go back and read the whole poem, there are weird sections about, for instance, how good Beowulf is at swimming, and other sections that go back hundreds of years and talk about hero kings that have ostensibly nothing to do with the story. So the way we read it now … seems very disjointed.”One piece of evidence that has factored into debates about unitary composition can be seen just by looking at the text.“The handwriting is different,” Krieger said. “At what I would call a random point in the poem, just mid-sentence, and not really an important sentence, the first scribe’s handwriting stops, and somebody else takes over. It’s clear that the second scribe also proofread the first scribe, so even though currently nobody really thinks that these two guys were different poets, or were joining together parts of a poem at this random midsentence location, it has helped contribute to a narrative according to which the writing of ‘Beowulf,’ and maybe its original composition, was a long and collaborative effort. “Arguments based on the poem’s content or its author’s supposed belief system are vital, of course, but equally important are arguments based on the nitty-gritty of stylistic details. The latter also have the merit of being testable, measurable.” — Madison Krieger In the 19th century, the prevailing view among academics was that the poem must be the work of multiple authors. It wasn’t until the early 20th century that another author — one whose name is all but synonymous with epic storytelling — began to challenge that idea.His name? J.R.R. Tolkien.“Tolkien was one of the greatest champions of single authorship,” Krieger said. “He was a very prominent ‘Beowulf’ scholar, and in 1936 he wrote a landmark piece, ‘Beowulf: The Monsters and the Critics,’ that really revived the idea that it was the work of a single person.”At the heart of Tolkien’s argument, Krieger said, is the way in which Christianity is reflected in the text.“The Christianization of ‘Beowulf’ is very interesting, because every single character in it is a pagan, even in these odd digressions,” Krieger said. “Beowulf is from southern Sweden and goes to Denmark to help other pagan Germanic peoples fight monsters … but it’s overlaid throughout with a Christian perspective and infused with Christian language.” Computational evidence from the study supports Tolkien’s view from a new perspective. “Arguments based on the poem’s content or its author’s supposed belief system are vital, of course, but equally important are arguments based on the nitty-gritty of stylistic details. The latter also have the merit of being testable, measurable.”Though he acknowledged it’s unlikely the new study will end the debates about the poem’s authorship, Krieger believes it can shed important new light on English literary traditions.“If we really believe this is one coherent work by one person, what does it mean that it has these strange asides?” he asked. “Maybe one of the biggest takeaways from this is about how you structured a story back then. Maybe we have just lost the ability to read literature in the way people at the time would have understood it, and we should try to understand how these asides actually fit into the story.”Going forward, Krieger and his colleagues are hoping to apply the stylometry tools developed for the study to other literary traditions and other landmark works.“Even works as well-studied as ‘The Iliad’ and ‘The Odyssey’ have yet to be analyzed using a full array of computational tools,” Krieger said. “The fine-grained features that seem to matter most have never been examined in a lot of traditions, and we’re hoping to spread these techniques that we think could change the way similar problems are approached.” Krieger also hopes to use the techniques to understand the stylistic evolution of English across history.“Putting Old English in context is the springboard,” he said. “This is the birth of English literature. From here we can look at what aspects of style evolved — not just grammar, but at the cultural level, what features people enjoyed, and how they changed over time.”Aside from their ability to shed new light on works of literature, Krieger suggested the stylometry tools used in the study might also have some thoroughly modern uses — including spotting troll farms and fake news online.“In retrospect, we know many thousands posts on Facebook were written by the same Macedonian troll farm during the 2016 election,” he said. “If we had some way to identify that posts were likely written by the same author, that would obviously be very useful in deterring misinformation campaigns.”Ultimately, though, Krieger believes the study is a prime example of how ancient texts still hold secrets that can be uncovered through the use of modern tools.“This is the first step in taking an old debate and refreshing it with some new methodology,” he said. “It’s a new extension of the whole critical apparatus, and it’s exciting that an area probably assumed to be very traditional can in fact be at the cutting edge of work that spans the humanities and sciences.”This research was supported with funding from a Neukom Institute for Computational Science CompX Grant, a National Endowment for the Humanities Digital Humanities Start-Up Grant, a New Directions Fellowship from the Andrew W. Mellon Foundation, a National Science Foundation Graduate Research Fellowship, and a Neukom Fellowship. Related A monstrous passion In ‘Beowulf’ and other dead-language texts, junior finds enduring inspiration It’s been a towering landmark in the world of English literature for nearly a millennium, but for two centuries “Beowulf” has also been the subject of fierce academic debate, much of it revolving around the question of whether the epic poem is the work of a single author or was stitched together from multiple sources.In an effort to resolve the dispute, a team of researchers led by Madison Krieger, a postdoctoral fellow at the Program for Evolutionary Dynamics, and and Joseph Dexter, Ph.D. ’18, a Neukom Fellow at Dartmouth College, turned to a very modern tool — the computer.Using a statistical approach known as stylometry, which analyzes everything from the poem’s meter to the number of times various combinations of letters show up in the text, Krieger and his colleagues found new evidence that “Beowulf” is the work of a single author. The study is described in an April 8 paper published in the journal Nature Human Behaviour.In addition to Krieger and Dexter, the study was co-authored by English Professor Leonard Neidorf of Nanjing University, an expert on “Beowulf” whose numerous studies include a book on the poem’s transmission, as well as Michelle Yakubek, who worked on the project as a student at MIT’s Research Science Institute, and Pramit Chaudhuri, associate professor of classics at the University of Texas at Austin. Chaudhuri and Dexter are the co-directors of the Quantitative Criticism Lab, a multi-institutional group devoted to developing computational approaches for the study of literature and culture.“We looked at four broad categories of items in the text,” Krieger said. “Each line has a meter, and many lines have what we call a sense pause, which is a small pause between clauses and sentences similar to the pauses we typically mark with punctuation in modern English. We also looked at aspects of word choice.“But it turns out one of the best markers you can measure is not at the level of words, but at the level of letter combinations,” he continued. “So we counted all the times the author used the combination ‘ab,’ ‘ac,’ ‘ad,’ and so on.” Harvard lecturer helps provide research-backed answer on authorship of Beatles classic Related The Daily Gazette Sign up for daily emails to get the latest Harvard news.
Proving to be adept with big showbiz numbers (Chicago), dreamy flashbacks (Nine) and Sondheim smarts (Into the Woods), this seems like a winning idea for Marshall. Cross your fingers and start dream-casting, Broadway fans! A true Broadway baby who got his start as a performer, choreographer and director on the Great White Way, Marshall has become Hollywood’s top director for modern movie musicals. Acclaimed past projects include the Oscar-winning Chicago (which earned him a Best Director Academy Award nomination), the 1999 TV redo of Annie and Nine, which received four 2010 Oscar nominations. While Broadway fans eagerly await the chance to go Into the Woods on Christmas Day with Disney’s all-star film version of the Stephen Sondheim/James Lapine musical, director Rob Marshall might be looking ahead at another show that begs for a big screen adaptation. ‘I’d love to take a look at Follies,” Marshall told Broadway.com, when asked which other Sondheim musical he’d like to bring to the screen. Follies premiered on Broadway at the Winter Garden Theatre on April 4, 1971 under the direction of Hal Prince and Michael Bennett, running just over a year with 522 performances. A cult favorite, the show has enjoyed many notable rebirths including a starry 1985 concert at Avery Fisher Hall, a 1987 London premiere, a 2001 Roundabout Theater Company revival on Broadway, a 2007 concert staging at City Center Encores! and a 2011 Broadway revival that premiered at the Kennedy Center for the Performing Arts in Washington, DC. With a score by Sondheim and book by James Goldman, Follies follows a group of former performers who are reunited on the stage of a soon-to-be-demolished Broadway theater where they once starred in a lavish musical revue. Many Sondheim standards are featured in the Tony Award-winning score, including “Broadway Baby,” “I’m Still Here,” “Could I Leave You?,” “In Buddy’s Eyes” and “Losing My Mind.” View Comments
By Dialogo August 22, 2012 With melting glaciers, furious hurricanes and implacable droughts under the magnifying glass, military, defense and civilian leaders from over 20 countries in the Western Hemisphere are gathering in Miami to brainstorm solutions to mitigate the impact climate changes might have in the military around the world. Organized by the United States Southern Command’s (SOUTHCOM) Engineering Division, the “Environmental Variability and Sustainability: Challenges for Military Resiliency and Readiness” conference is focusing on topics such as how rising temperatures will impact cold-region installations, the pressure to reduce the size of the Air Force carbon footprint, and how more efficient military vehicles can save soldiers’ lives by reducing the need of fuel convoys that are such an easy target for the enemy. “While climate change alone does not cause conflict, it may act as accelerant of instability or conflict, placing a burden to respond on civilian institutions and militaries around the world. And when you get factors of instability, you are talking about security issues that could put our national interests at stake,” said Major General Joseph DiSalvo, USSOUTHCOM’s Chief of Staff, during his opening remarks. Maj. Gen. DiSalvo stressed that military forces should look at ways to adapt to changing missions that may require different expertise, training and equipment, protect their installations and training areas, and make investments in finding technology solutions to an inevitable problem. One of the highlights of the first day of the event was the presentation by keynote speaker Timothy K. Bridges, Deputy Assistant Secretary of the U.S. Air Force for Environment and Occupational Health. Bridges spoke of the urgent need for action and collaboration across the board. “The scale of these international climate challenges will require regional and multilateral responses making use of regional and international organizations. In this sense, the All Partner Access Network (APAN) can foster information exchange between one country and another, with organizations and other agencies that may not have access to traditional Department of Defense systems and networks,” he insisted. As part of his presentation, Bridges also offered real live examples of what several military facilities in the United States are doing to respond to future and present climate changes. Among those, he mentioned the Langley Air Force Base, one of the oldest continuously working air bases in the U.S. According to estimates, by year 2100, 40 to 50 percent of the installation, including much of the runway, could be at risk for inundation. The air base is working closely with the Oak Ridge National Lab to prepare for this possibility. One of the most interesting sessions of the conference was the panel “Perspective from the Region”, where representatives from the Chilean Ministry of Defense, the Colombian Navy and Army, as well as El Salvador’s Armed Forces, explained what their countries are doing to prepare for and react to climate changes. “This conference offers us the opportunity to showcase what we are doing in Colombia and learn from what others are accomplishing in their own nations”, said Commander Silvia Rondón, who heads the environmental efforts by the Colombian Navy. On the last day of the conference, August 23, the discussions will move from SOUTHCOM’s Conference Center of the Americas to the field, at the Everglades National Park. There, among what seems to be a picture perfect wilderness paradise, the participants will have the opportunity to see, feel and smell an actual example of what climate change can do to the environment. The tour will include a briefing on the Everglades Restoration Project, an overview of how climate is affecting the Homestead Air Force Base, south of Miami, and closing remarks by Colonel Steve Williamson, SOUTHCOM’s Command Engineer. I write this comment when the event has not even reached half of the time, which will be the 23rd of the current month. I think that the contributions of countries such as Colombia, Chile and El Salvador will be of great benefit for those who continue the event in this way. I regret not having the pdf papers of the referred countries
Program turns troubled kids on to the arts June 15, 2002 Assistant Editor Regular News Program turns troubled kids on to the arts Amy K. Brown Assistant Editor Gang members in tutus are not something you’d expect to see in a tough Tampa neighborhood—unless, that is, you’re visiting the Prodigy program.Created through a partnership among Bay Area Youth Services (BAYS), Hillsborough Community College, and the University Area Community Development Corporation (UACDC), Prodigy is a unique juvenile diversion program aimed at keeping troubled kids out of trouble by introducing them to the arts. The UACDC provides the building and grounds, and BAYS provides case management.“The university-area community, formerly known as ‘Suitcase City,’ is now the second largest depressed, blighted area in the state of Florida,” said state Sen. Victor Crist, R-Tampa, who was instrumental in creating the UACDC and now sits as the nonprofit group’s chair. “There are over 40,000 economically disadvantaged residents. There are over 12,000 children that are school-aged, plus infants and babies.”The area became known as “Suitcase City” because of the transience of the population.“Over 90 percent of this community changes over in a given year,” Crist said. “This area suffers from the highest crime, the largest concentration of poverty, and the list goes on and on. When you look at juvenile crime [in the Tampa area], the majority of the juvenile activity and juvenile crime comes from the zip codes we service here,” he said.Back in the early 1990s, several area organizations, including Hillsborough County government, the University of South Florida-area Community Civic Association, of which Crist is president, the U.S. Attorney’s Office, led by Janet Reno, and the Hillsborough County Sheriff’s Office sought out a government “weed-and-seed” designation.Suitcase City received the Justice Department designation — one of the first 15 nationwide — thanks to the community’s efforts to weed out the area’s violent offenders and help plant the seeds of a healthy neighborhood through early intervention, drug treatment, and economic revitalization and stimulation.Through continuing needs assessments, it became apparent that the community needed a multipurpose facility “to provide a variety of services to an ever-changing community,” Crist said.Local businesses and community groups donated millions, and the money was combined with state and government grants to form the nonprofit University Area Community Development Corporation to build and manage the community center.“Unlike most public facilities, this is a public-private partnership,” said Crist. “We’re combining both private money and public money to provide public services.”And, the crown jewel of that partnership, according to Crist, is the Prodigy program.“What our vision is, is there are so many kids who have potential for talent, but they never realize it because they’re never given the opportunity,” he said.The program teaches neighborhood kids visual and performing arts in order to modify their behavior and to provide new skills to enhance their learning abilities, Crist said.More than a thousand kids between the ages of seven and 17 participate in Prodigy. Some are referred to the program from the state attorney’s office, and some are required to complete the 90-day program by other juvenile agencies — Teen Court, Drug Court, or the Department of Juvenile Justice. Others come directly from the neighborhood and attend on a volunteer basis.“We are always looking for ways to reduce the occurrence of major crimes being committed by juveniles,” wrote Hillsborough State Attorney Mark Ober in a message to his assistant state attorneys. “Juvenile offenders who reside within the designated service area can be referred to the program. . . . Their offenses must have been either misdemeanors or first-time nonviolent felonies. Siblings of referred juveniles are also welcome to participate.”Prodigy kids — whether required to be there or just attending for fun — register and attend classes in two major areas, said Larry Bukovey, Prodigy unit supervisor: visual arts like pottery, photography, painting, and drawing, and performing arts like dance, acting, improv, drumming, and guitar.“The kids have an opportunity to go to these programs, and when they’re finished, when they’ve successfully completed the programs, they will not have a record [of their offense],” said Bukovey.Most of the students have little or no artistic training, Crist said. For many, Prodigy is their first encounter with the arts.Shannon, a Prodigy student, said that, thanks to her involvement in the Prodigy program, she plans on becoming a graphic artist — something she never would have known about before.“They have a computer graphics class here, so I think it’s really good for me because I get to see more of what I’m going to be doing as a profession,” she said. “It helps me get some time under my belt for my job.”These are also kids “who wouldn’t have normally been caught dead standing on the grounds of a theater that had ballet, much less [danced in one],” Crist said.Last Christmas, 22 inner city children danced with the St. Petersburg Ballet Society in five performances of “The Nutcracker.” Sixteen of those children were adjudicated youth from Prodigy.“These kids say, ‘Send us to a boot camp, but don’t put me on no stage in dance tights. Forget it. I don’t want to be like that in front of the rival gang.’ But, you know, we do that,” said Crist. “And, at first, it’s a little bit of punishment and torture, but once they realize that the moves they learn in ballet improve their basketball game and improve their football game. . . then all of a sudden it becomes cool.“A lot of these guys and girls who are cut-ups in the classroom are natural performers. They’re looking for a venue. We give them that venue. When they realize they’ve got a talent and we’re able to help them channel it positively, then they move in that positive direction and they sit tight in school, they mind their teachers, they get through the class so they can come here and perform.”Crist and Bukovey estimate that the program affects more than a thousand neighborhood kids directly through participation in Prodigy, and at least a thousand more indirectly, through their interactions with siblings and peers.“It has been proven time and time again that children who are consistently involved with the study of music and musical instruments do better in math and sciences and have better focus in the classroom,” Crist said. “It’s also been proven that kids who are actively involved in theater and dance have better personal relationships with friends, with siblings, with peer groups, and with other races, genders, and diversities.”And statistics show the program is successful at keeping these kids out of trouble. As part of their contract to provide case management services, BAYS must show that at least 75 percent of kids referred by agencies like the state attorney’s office complete the program, and 80 percent of participating kids referred for crimes remain crime-free for six months after release from the program.“We’ve met that every time,” said John Burek, BAYS Circuit 13 supervisor. “National standards are much lower than that. [Prodigy] exceeds the national average for youth participating in a program like this.”The success of the program is also due in large part to the UACDC facility, Crist said.“In a community that has had nothing but pain and suffering and blight, we needed something to arise from the ashes of despair,” he said. “And, we thought of the beautiful phoenix, the bird who crashed and burned and rose from the ashes of despair. So does this building rise from the ashes of despair from the community here in Suitcase City.”The building itself is laid out in the shape of the phoenix — one wing pointing south, one pointing north, its beak facing west out into the community, and its head, a tower, rising to the heavens. Digital cameras monitor the exterior and interior of the building. Vulnerable windows are barred for protection, but they don’t appear jail-like. The walls are sprinkled with brightly colored tiles, derived from local gangs’ graffiti which “has helped provide security here,” Crist said.The phoenix provides a secure and nurturing atmosphere for Prodigy students to stay off the streets and become healthy and productive community members.“Some of these kids are adjudicated felons,” Crist said. “And, all of a sudden, their whole attitude and outlook on life have changed, because now they realize that if they screw up, and they go into their adulthood as a screw-up, the rest of their natural life will be screwed up. That is probably the toughest thing to help a kid identify — that life is a lot more than what is today, that there are going to be a lot more tomorrows than there were yesterdays, and if you want them to be good and happy and enjoyable ones, then you have to start making your change now.“Prodigy has been extremely effective in providing that kind of support and influencing and making those kinds of changes within a child’s mind. You’ll see kids who are still just as outspoken, who are still just as energetic, and still just as deviant, but you’ll see that energy being channeled in a positive direction, and being utilized in a positive way, so that they still get the satisfaction they need from their behavior, but they get it in a positive direction.”Recent graduates of Prodigy and other UACDC programs will be honored June 22 at a gala hosted by the UACDC. For more information, call 813/558-5212.
Proposed jury instruction amendments November 1, 2002 Regular News Proposed jury instruction amendments The Supreme Court Committee on Standard Jury Instructions in Criminal Cases invites comment on the proposed changes shown below. After reviewing comments received in response to this publication, the committee will make its final proposal to the Florida Supreme Court. Please submit all comments to Judge Philip J. Padovano, Chair, First District Court Of Appeal, 301 South Martin Luther King, Jr. Blvd., Tallahassee 32399-1850. Your comments must be received by November 29 to ensure that they are considered by the committee. Note: The language to be removed was adopted in March 1989 in response to a 1987 amendment to §776.05. See Chapter 87-147, Laws of Florida. A 1988 amendment, however, was overlooked. See Chapter 88-381, §54, Laws of Florida. That amendment shows that the language stricken below applies only to civil actions. 3.6(h) JUSTIFIABLE USE OF FORCE BY LAW ENFORCEMENT OFFICER In making an arrest of a felon § 776.05, Fla.Stat. Give if applicable A law enforcement officer, or any person [he] [she] has summoned or directed to assist [him] [her], need not retreat from or stop efforts to make a lawful arrest because of resistance or threatened resistance to the arrest. The officer is justified in the use of any force that [he] [she] reasonably believes necessary to defend [himself] [herself] or another from bodily harm while making the arrest. That force is also justifiable when necessarily used 1. in retaking a felon who has escaped or 2. in arresting a felon who is fleeing from justice. Force in making unlawful arrest prohibited § 776.051(2), Fla.Stat. Use of any force by a law enforcement officer or any person summoned or directed to assist the law enforcement officer is not justified if Give if applicable 1. the arrest is unlawful and 2. it is known by the officer or the person assisting [him] [her] to be unlawful. In making an arrest of a fleeing felon . Give 1 or 2 as applicable . Define felon In arresting a felon who is fleeing from justice, an officer is justified in the use of any force if 1. the officer reasonably believes that the fleeing felon poses a threat of death or serious physical harm to the officer or others; or 2. the officer reasonably believes that the fleeing felon has committed a crime involving the infliction or the threatened infliction of serious physical harm to another person. To prevent escape from custody § 776.07(1), Fla.Stat. Give if applicable A law enforcement officer or other person who has an arrested person in [his] [her] custody is justified in the use of any force that [he] [she] reasonably believes to be necessary to prevent the escape of the arrested person from custody. To prevent escape from penal institution § 776.07(2), Fla.Stat. Give if applicable A guard or other law enforcement officer is justified in the use of any force that [he] [she] reasonably believes to be necessary to prevent an escape from a penal institution of a person the officer reasonably believes is lawfully detained. Give if applicable “Deadly force” includes, but is not limited to 1. firing a firearm in the direction of the person to be arrested, even though no intent exists to kill or inflict great bodily harm; and § 776.06(1)(a), Fla.Stat. 2. firing a firearm at a vehicle in which the person to be arrested is riding. §776.06(1)(b), Fla.Stat. Definition; give if applicable A “firearm” is legally defined as (adapt from § 790.001(6), Fla.Stat., as required by allegations) . Comment This instruction was adopted in 1981 and was amended March 1989. The Florida Supreme Court Committee on Standard Jury Instructions (Criminal) has filed a Revised Supplemental Report (No. 2002-1) with the Supreme Court. In response to this court’s request in Gross v. State, 765 So. 2d 39 (Fla. 2000), the committee proposes a new definition of “enterprise” to replace the existing definition of that term in the Florida Standard Jury Instructions in Criminal Cases. The court invites all interested persons to comment on the committee’s proposed amendments, which are summarized below, as well as online at www.flcourts.org/sct/sctdocs/proposed.html. An original and nine copies of all comments must be filed with the court on or before December 2, with a certificate of service verifying that a copy has been served on the committee chair, Judge Philip J. Padovano, First District Court of Appeal, 301 Martin Luther King, Jr. Blvd., Tallahassee 32399-1850, as well as a separate request for oral argument if the person filing the comment wishes to participate in oral argument which may be scheduled in this case. All comments must be filed in paper format and in WordPerfect 5.1 (or higher) format on a DOS formatted 3-1/2 inch diskette. IN THE SUPREME COURT OF FLORIDA STANDARD JURY INSTRUCTIONS IN CRIMINAL CASES – SUBMISSION 2002-1, CASE NO. SC02-657 The committee proposes the following definition of “enterprise” to replace the existing definition of that term in the Florida Standard Jury Instructions in Criminal Cases 26.2 RICO — Use or Investment of Proceeds From Pattern of Racketeering Activity, 26.3 RICO — Use or Investment of Proceeds From Collection of Unlawful Debt, 26.4 RICO — Acquisition or Maintenance Through Pattern of Racketeering Activity, 26.5 RICO — Acquisition or Maintenance Through Collection of Unlawful Debt, 26.6 RICO — Conduct of or Participation in an Enterprise Through Collection of Unlawful Debt, 26.7 RICO — Conduct of or Participation in an Enterprise Through Pattern of Racketeering Activity, and 26.8 RICO — Conspiracy to Engage in Pattern of Racketeering Activity:An “enterprise” is an ongoing organization, formal or informal, t hat both functions as a continuing unit and has a common purpose of engaging in a course of conduct.The committee also proposes the following amendment to each of the identical comments to Florida Standard Jury Instructions in Criminal Cases 26.2, 26.3, 26.4, 26.5, 26.6, 26.7, and 26.8: Comment This instruction was adopted in 1989 and amended in 2002. The definition of the term “enterprise” in this instruction is from the supreme court’s opinion in Gross v. State, 765 So. 2d 39 (Fla. 2000). As to the issue of whether an individual can be an enterprise, see State v. Nishi, 521 So. 2d 252 (Fla. 3d DCA 1988) and State v. Bowen, 413 So. 2d 798 (Fla. 1st DCA 1983).
When it was all said and done, legislators add 55 new judges June 1, 2005 Senior Editor Regular News When it was all said and done, legislators add 55 new judges That’s half the number wanted and they all will be appointed Gary Blankenship Senior Editor Florida’s courts will get 35 new circuit judges and 20 new county judges following action by the Florida Legislature in the closing days of its 2005 regular session.That is half of the 110 new judges certified as needed by the Florida Supreme Court, but it’s the first time in the past three years that lawmakers have approved any of the new judges requested by the courts.The new judges will come in two batches appointed by Gov. Jeb Bush. Eighteen circuit and 10 county judges will be appointed as of November, and 17 circuit and 10 county judges will be effective in January. The Supreme Court had certified a total of 67 new circuit judges, 41 county judges, and two district court of appeal judges. Neither of the DCA slots, one for the Second DCA and one for the Fifth, was approved this year.“The governor recognized the need to fund all of the judges certified by the court this year, and we are grateful for his leadership,” Supreme Court Chief Justice Barbara Pariente said. “We are very appreciative that the legislature, under the leadership of [Senate] President [Tom] Lee [R-Brandon] and [House] Speaker [Allan] Bense [R-Panama City], has begun recognizing the pressing need for new trial judges throughout our state, with its funding this year of 55 new judges around the state.”The judicial certification bill wound up becoming some of the last-minute drama in the session. According to news reports, hard feelings between Rep. Bruce Kyle, R-Ft. Myers, chair of the House Justice Council and sponsor of the House certification bill, and Senate President Tom Lee, R-Brandon, and other senators resulted in the Senate version of the bill having no new county or circuit judges in Kyle’s home 20th Circuit.In every other circuit or county where the court requested new judges, at least one was approved.Kyle attempted to amend the Senate bill on the House floor late on the last day of the session, but his amendment was denied by a voice vote. Reportedly other House members feared the Senate would not agree to any changes and that no new judges would be approved. Kyle then urged House members to support the Senate bill so that some new judges would be approved.“The Senate wanted to fund half of the judges this year and half of the judges next year,” said Rep. Joe Negron, R-Stuart, chair of the House Fiscal Council, which oversees the budget. “Ultimately, we funded one half this year. I think there’s a general understanding we’ll fund the remainder next year, but that’s a goal we’ll have to set for next year.”As for the dispute over 20th Circuit judgeships, Negron said, “The Senate did not want to fund any new judges for the 20th Circuit. That was the political reality I had to deal with.. . . I didn’t think it was appropriate to jettison the entire judicial certification because of a political dispute.”The House had started out seeking to fund all but the two DCA slots, while the Senate leaders said they wanted half this year and half next year.Here’s a circuit-by-circuit look at how many circuit judgeships were certified and the number approved by the legislature:• In the First Circuit, the court certified three new judgeships, and the circuit will get one new judge in November.• In the Second Circuit, the court asked for two more judges, and one new judgeship will be created in November.• In the Third Circuit, the court asked for one more judge, and the legislature approved that for January.• In the Fourth Circuit, the court asked for two new judges, and one new slot will be created in January.• In the Fifth Circuit, the court asked for seven new judges, and lawmakers approved two for November and one for January.• In the Sixth Circuit, the court asked for five new judges, and legislators approved one in November and two in January.• In the Seventh Circuit, the court asked for four new judges, and the legislature approved one in November and a second in January.• In the Eighth Circuit, the court asked for one new judge, and the legislature approved that for November.• In the Ninth Circuit, the court asked for five more judges, and the legislature approved one in November and one in January.• In the 10th Circuit, the court asked for seven judges and the legislators approved two in November and two in January.• In the 11th Circuit, the court asked for seven new judges, and legislators approved two in November and one in January.• In the 13th Circuit, the court certified six new judges, and legislators approved two in November and two in January.• In the 14th Circuit, the court asked for one more judge, and lawmakers approved that, effective in January.• In the 15th Circuit, the court asked for one new judge, and lawmakers approved that effective in November.• In the 17th Circuit, the court asked for six new judges, and legislators approved one in November and two in January.• In the 18th Circuit, the court asked for two new judges, and lawmakers approved one effective in January.• In the 19th Circuit, the court asked for four more judges, and legislators approved two in November and one in January.• In the 20th Circuit, the court asked for three new judges, and none were approved.For county judgeships:• In Bay County, the court asked for one judge, and got that, effective in November.• In Brevard County, the court asked for four judges, and got one effective in January.• In Broward County, the court asked for six judges, and got one in November and one in January.• In Collier County, the court asked for two new judges, and none were approved.• In Duval County, the court asked for one new judge, and that was approved effective in November.• In Hernando County, the court asked for one new judge, and that was approved as of November.• In Hillsborough County, the court asked for four judges, and got one in November and a second in January.• In Lake County, the court asked for one new judge, and that was approved as of January.• In Lee County, the court asked for one new judge and that was not approved.• In Manatee County, the court asked for one judge, and got that effective in November.• In Marion County, the court asked for two new judges, and got one effective in November.• In Martin County, the court asked for one judge, and got that in January.• In Miami-Dade County, the court asked for two judges, and got one effective in January.• In Orange County, the court asked for three judges, and got one effective in November.• In Palm Beach County, the court asked for two judges, and got one, effective in January.• In Pasco County, the court asked for two new judges, and got one effective in January.• In Pinellas County, the court asked for four new judges, and got one effective in November.• In St. Lucie County, the court asked for one judge, and got that in November.• In Seminole County, the court asked for one judge, and got one in January.• In Volusia County, the court asked for one new judge, and got that effective in January.The bill that passed the legislature, in addition to creating the new judgeships, approved hiring 65 additional positions (mostly judicial assistants) and appropriated $8.5 million to pay for the new judicial and support positions.The action leaves the Supreme Court and legislature looking ahead to next year. “If we could get 55 funded next year, I would be very happy with that,” Negron said.Although lawmakers have pledged to fund 55 more judges next year, the state constitution requires the Supreme Court to issue an annual certification opinion, making it possible the court will ask for a higher number.“Florida is the fourth most populous state, and it continues to grow rapidly,” Chief Justice Pariente said. “Our judges over the last few years have shown a remarkable work ethic in attempting to keep pace despite rising populations and growing dockets. Unfortunately, our system of justice remains strained. The legislature has taken an important step with its funding of 50 percent of our certification request. Its actions this year will help ensure that justice is not delayed because of a shortage of judges.“We are optimistic that next year the legislature, in accordance with the pledge of its leaders, will fund the full complement of judges in accordance with the court’s certification of need we will issue before the 2006 session.”
So, I’m in Key West for a NAFCU conference. I always try to read a book on these trips. Before I left, I looked at my pile of WTBR books.Those are my “Waiting to be read” books.I chose Malcolm Gladwell’s book, David and Goliath. I won’t get into details of the book, but I will certainly recommend it. Here’s what I will say.First, watch this TED video, where Mr. Gladwell tells the surprising story of David versus Goliath. I thought I knew this story, but it turns out that I did not.And I’ll say this.Many of us face uphill challenges. We face obstacles that seem to be stacked against us. This book shows that if you are creative and believe, you can overcome what appear to insurmountable odds. continue reading » 2SHARESShareShareSharePrintMailGooglePinterestDiggRedditStumbleuponDeliciousBufferTumblr
Additionally, those with savings in Lønmodtagernes Dyrtidsfond (LD) will be allowed to withdraw their savings with a slightly increased tax rate of 2.7% – or to pay off the accrued tax liability in 2015 without withdrawing their savings from LD.Forsikring & Pension (F&P), the Danish pension and insurance association, said the Treasury was taxing income at the expense of future treasury receipts.Per Bremer Rasmussen, the association’s chief executive, said he accepted the government’s argument that the change was needed to sidestep a further excessive deficit procedure.However, he said the move was at the expense of the welfare of future generations and urged the Finance Ministry to instead focus on measures that would bring about real growth.He added that the money would be “missing from the Treasury when parents are in nursing homes”. The Danish pension association has criticised changes to pension taxation as simply a means of reducing the country’s budget deficit while damaging its welfare state.Finance minister Bjarne Corydon said the government needed to pursue a “responsible economic policy” and therefore was altering the level of tax rebate offered to pension savers in an effort to reduce the deficit by 0.75% of GDP.Denmark is taking the measures to ensure it does not exceed the EU’s 3% deficit target, after the European Commission earlier this year concluded a previous excessive deficit procedure.The tweaks to taxation for lump-sum pensions (kapitalpensioner) come on the heels of prior changes that allowed beneficiaries to lower their tax liability to the old-age savings vehicle (aldersopsparing).
The new Hydeberry estate at Rochedale by Mirvac opened this year.Rochedale has become an attractive suburb for those who prefer a new house to a pre-existing property or apartment closer to the city.According to CoreLogic data, the suburb median house sale price had risen 6.1 per cent in the 12 months to September, from $914,000 to $970,000.In comparison, Kangaroo Point had a median of $945,000, Grange $957,500, Indooroopilly $865,000, and Windsor $780,000. LJ Hooker Sunnybank Hills agent Emily Xiong says there is a shortage of stock.More from newsParks and wildlife the new lust-haves post coronavirus15 hours agoNoosa’s best beachfront penthouse is about to hit the market15 hours agoLJ Hooker Sunnybank Hills agent Emily Xiong said a demand in stock was what pushed up the median.“It is short of stock at the moment,” Ms Xiong said. “I still have a lot of buyers looking to buy.”The suburb almost tripled in population over five years, with the Australian Bureau of Statistics finding 3175 people called the suburb home in 2016, up from 1092 in 2011. Video Player is loading.Play VideoPlayNext playlist itemMuteCurrent Time 0:00/Duration 0:51Loaded: 0%Stream Type LIVESeek to live, currently playing liveLIVERemaining Time -0:51 Playback Rate1xChaptersChaptersDescriptionsdescriptions off, selectedCaptionscaptions settings, opens captions settings dialogcaptions off, selectedQuality Levels720p720pHD576p576p432p432p270p270pAutoA, selectedAudio Tracken (Main), selectedFullscreenThis is a modal window.Beginning of dialog window. Escape will cancel and close the window.TextColorWhiteBlackRedGreenBlueYellowMagentaCyanTransparencyOpaqueSemi-TransparentBackgroundColorBlackWhiteRedGreenBlueYellowMagentaCyanTransparencyOpaqueSemi-TransparentTransparentWindowColorBlackWhiteRedGreenBlueYellowMagentaCyanTransparencyTransparentSemi-TransparentOpaqueFont Size50%75%100%125%150%175%200%300%400%Text Edge StyleNoneRaisedDepressedUniformDropshadowFont FamilyProportional Sans-SerifMonospace Sans-SerifProportional SerifMonospace SerifCasualScriptSmall CapsReset restore all settings to the default valuesDoneClose Modal DialogEnd of dialog window.This is a modal window. This modal can be closed by pressing the Escape key or activating the close button.Close Modal DialogThis is a modal window. This modal can be closed by pressing the Escape key or activating the close button.PlayMuteCurrent Time 0:00/Duration 0:00Loaded: 0%Stream Type LIVESeek to live, currently playing liveLIVERemaining Time -0:00 Playback Rate1xFullscreenStarting your hunt for a dream home00:51It is on the cusp of Brisbane’s south and Logan’s north, but this suburb has a median house sale price more than Kangaroo Point, Grange, Indooroopilly and Windsor. The sale of 29 Glenmore Cres, Rochedale, was the top sale of the year.Ms Xiong said properties being purchased in the suburb’s new estates were being bought by young Asian people and their extended families.“Most of them are owner occupied,” Ms Xiong said.“It is a very popular new estate, close to the school and a few new shopping centres.”Census data also revealed Asian was the most common ancestry, and 60.8 per cent of residents reported both of their parents were born overseas.CoreLogic data also revealed the highest sale of the suburb for 2018 to be $3.6 million for the five-bedroom, five-bathroom home on 1.01ha at 29 Glenmore Cres.