The origins. The Spanish Super Cup was played for the first time between October and December 1982. At the premiere of the tournament, the Real Sociedad (champion of the League) defeated Real Madrid (champion of the Copa del Rey). Of the first eight editions, only four were played; The competition was canceled in 1986 and 1987 due to date problems and in 1984 and 1989 it was not necessary to play any match by having achieved two doubles at the Athletic Club and Real Madrid, respectively.“Guest” teams. On March 1, 1996, when the two finalists of the Copa del Rey of that season were already known, the RFEF decided in the Board of Directors that, in case a team was proclaimed champion of the League and the Copa del Rey in In the same season, the Spanish Super Cup would be “invited” to the runner-up of the Copero tournament. The regulation change came, therefore, in conditions very similar to those of last season, also with the well advanced football course and with the finalists of the KO tournament already decided.Atleti-Barça in 1996. Atletico Madrid won the double in the 1995-96 season and faced Barcelona (runner-up Cup) in August. It was the first of the six occasions in which a team was “invited” to the Spanish Super Cup and the first of three times in which the club won the title (Barcelona in 1996, Mallorca in 1998 and Athletic Club in 2015). Curiously, neither Barcelona nor Atlético de Madrid played that 1996 tournament in their respective stadiums. The first were local in the Olympic of Montjuïc, while the second chose the La Peineta Stadium (now Wanda Metropolitano).Barcelona leads the medal winners. The 35 Spanish Super Cup titles awarded to date are distributed as follows: 13 for Barcelona, 10 for Real Madrid, 3 for Deportivo, two for Atlético de Madrid, two for Athletic Club, one for Real Zaragoza, one for Mallorca, one for Real Sociedad, one for Sevilla and the rest was taken by Valencia.Atypical date. The Spanish Super Cup was not played in winter since 1993 (Real Madrid defeated Barcelona 3-1 at the Bernabéu on December 2 and drew 1-1 at the Camp Nou on the 16th of the same month), although this is the first edition that is played in the month of January. It will be the second final played outside of Spain (last year was held in Morocco) and it is the first time that the Final Four model is used for a tournament of this style in any of the major European leagues. Derbis in the Super Cups. Atlético de Madrid and Real Madrid have previously faced each other in the Spanish Supercup (2014) and in the European Supercup (2018) and on both occasions they took the title the rojiblancos. The first to double game (see page 3) and the second to single game in Tallinn (4-2 after extension). That match was the official debut of Julen Lopetegui at the head of Real Madrid.In neutral field. Apart from that European Super Cup played in Estonia that won the Atleti, three other official Madrid derbies have been held in neutral field: there was a tiebreaker match in Zaragoza corresponding to the 1958-59 European Cup (Madrid won 2- 1; he would end up raising his fourth consecutive title) and two recent Champions League finals in Lisbon (4-1 for Madrid in 2014, after extra time) and Milan (1-1 and victory in the penalty shootout for the white team in 2016 ).Balance between both. The overall balance of the 274 official confrontations between Atlético and Madrid is very favorable to the whites, who have added 140 victories and 473 goals, while their rival has achieved 68 wins and 348 goals. Although at the end of the single game Atleti has an advantage: it won five and lost three.Infallible in the finals. Zidane has never lost a final in his career as a coach, either single game or double game. He won three of three in the European Cup, two of two in the Club World Cup, two of two in the European Super Cup and one of one in the Spanish Super Cup. His balance against Atlético de Madrid is two wins, five draws and two losses in nine official matches.Closer to Miguel Muñoz. Zidane could achieve today his tenth title in his official match number 187 as coach of Real Madrid (he would go out to a title every 19 games). It would be four wounded to equal the 14 of Miguel Muñoz, who is the most successful coach in the history of the white club.The tenth of Cholo. Simeone faces today his tenth final as Atlético coach. He won six of the previous nine and only lost three (a Spanish Super Cup against Barcelona and the two Champions League against Madrid). Today he could balance his balance in the derby in case of victory (for now he has nine wins, eleven draws and ten losses in 30 clashes against the Real).Beat Luis. Simeone could achieve today his eighth title as coach of Atlético, which would exceed the seven of Luis Aragonés (counting the 2001-02 Second Championship) and become the most successful coach in the history of the club. Only Miguel Muñoz (14 titles with Madrid), Pep Guardiola (14 with Barcelona), Johan Cruyff (11 with Barcelona), Luis Enrique (9 titles with Barcelona) and Ferdinand Daucik (8 titles with Barcelona) beat him in titles with the same club in the history of Spanish football.
As Housing Gains Slow, Some Markets Shine Brighter Housing metrics pulled back nationally to end the second quarter, but what’s true at the national level isn’t always true at the local level.In its June National Housing Trend Report, Realtor.com reported the national housing market continued to gain some strength as summer got under way, though the rate of recovery dimmed somewhat.According to the report, median list prices at the national level grew to $215,000, marking a 7.55 percent improvement over this time last year but only a 0.05 percent gain from May.Meanwhile, inventory levels declined to an estimated 1.9 million listings, a decline of nearly 1 percent from June and 8.65 percent from May.”National housing inventory is now roughly in line with June 2013 levels when rising home prices first generated a surge in market supply,” Realtor.com reported.Additionally, homes in June sold 5 percent faster than they did last year—a median 76 days—indicating demand remains strong as supply falters.While current and seasonal trends would suggest home sales will see a slowdown in the coming months, national indicators are masking some of the activity happening in individual markets, says Jonathan Smoke, chief economist for Realtor.com.”Our June data shows monthly inventory picking up in markets already experiencing price increases and fast property turnover,” Smoke said. “These dynamics will result in strong home sales and extend the buying season past the usual June/July peak to later in the third quarter.”According to the report, the brightest spots for third-quarter growth are positioned all over the country, including Baton Rouge, Louisiana; Columbia, South Carolina; Spokane, Washington; and Philadelphia, among others.Though they’re geographically dispersed, the company says all of those markets have a few important traits in common: steady month-over-month inventory growth, decent price appreciation, and faster home sales as local demand outpaces supply.It’s those attributes, Smoke says, that will help propel sales moving forward.”The markets where we expect significant third quarter home sales are all very different—ranging from small to large, affordable to expensive, previously distressed to minimally affected by the downturn,” Smoke said. “Diversification in the areas experiencing healthy real estate economies is a key indicator that the housing recovery has become more sustainable.” in Daily Dose, Data, Featured, Headlines, News August 6, 2014 446 Views Demand Home Prices Home Sales Housing Supply Realtor.com 2014-08-06 Tory Barringer Share
Source: Electric Vehicles Magazine Sponsored by ABB. Download a PDF version of this article. A steeper growth curve for electric vehicles will depend on continuous technological development, further commercialization and practical regulatory policies. Standards and interoperability underscore all of these trends, across vehicles, charging systems and communication networks – and are a key driving force for electric vehicle adoption.Technology innovation is often the prime driver of economicgrowth in any new market, yet innovations can also create risk. Fortunately,risks can be managed through the proving out of safety, reliability andusability of these new technologies. This is where standards development is socritical to the health and proliferation of the electric vehicle industry. EVcharging infrastructure development and deployment will ultimately happenfaster through industry encouragement and support of open standards andinteroperability.What is interoperability?Interoperability, in the most universal terms, is the opencommunication and exchange of data between and among devices and/or softwaresystems. Interoperability is a key issue for many industries such as softwaredevelopment, home automation, healthcare, telecommunications and public safety.We can see the many benefits of interoperability in ourdaily lives when we expect our varied mobile devices to work across differentcellular networks in different regions; or when our communities rely on policeand fire departments to communicate with each other using common platformsduring emergencies. Consider what HTML did for the World Wide Web, or howimportant USB has been to data storage and consumer electronics. And many will recall how frustrating it wasthat mobile phone roaming meant that calling a friend or family member onanother cellular network kept conversations exceedingly short to save minutesand money. In similar ways, interoperability is also critical to enablingelectric vehicles and charging infrastructure at a mass scale. The term isoften used to describe multiple aspects of electric vehicle charging, and caninclude form factor, communication and compatible ratings among any of thefollowing entities in a charging system:The vehicleThe charging station hardwareThe charging station connectivity softwareThe back-office or payment back-endThe network operatorThe energy management systemThe power supplyThis white paper will specifically address standards andinteroperability as they concern vehicles connecting to charginginfrastructure, as well as charging hardware to networks and back-end paymentsystems.The importance of standardization and interoperability can be summed up within a framework of cross-industry values that include safety, scalability, savings, security and simplicity. The chart below shows the many ways in which standards and interoperability can deliver a multitude of benefits to EV charging infrastructure growth and adoption.A framework of benefits: Safety, Scalability, Savings, Security and Simplicity.Vehicle to chargerFor a charging system to energize a vehicle’s battery, theremust be a common physical connection point and a ‘handshake’ made between thevehicle’s Battery Management System (BMS) and the charger. The BMS thencommunicates important parameters of the battery to the charger, such as stateof charge, power capability, environmental conditions and other data that arecritical to both safety and battery longevity.The connection and communication between a vehicle andcharger will be based on a common inlet-outlet and a language that both speakfluently, known as a protocol. A protocol becomes a standard when multipleparties agree to implement and deploy it. Standards are considered most openwhen they are publicly available with no licensing agreements nor ongoingproprietary fees collected to implement them. A brief history of EV charging standardsIn the early years of mass production EVs, chargingstandards were also developing. Standardization of AC charging protocols wassolidifying across most EVs when a DC-capable protocol known as CHAdeMO camealong for faster charging capability. However, uncertainty emerged when anotherstandard, CCS was introduced, creating a standards schism. These controversialdevelopments created uncertainty and slowed investment in public charginginfrastructure for a period of time.The introduction of multi-standard charging systems bycharging station manufacturers helped to settle some of the debate. ABB waspart of that effort, incorporating all open standards within a single chargingstation and deploying them around the world. This solution offered a commonapproach for the industry to move forward, and quickly resulted in increasedcharging infrastructure investment.These fast charging standards have now been formalized intomost vehicle and charging product platforms in North America and Europe.Figures 1 and 2 on this page show charging stations withconfigurations incorporating CCS-1 and CHAdeMO open standards, whichaccommodate battery electric vehicles sold in North America. Inherently future-proofNow with a few years of perspective, we have seen passengervehicle standardization mature and improve, not only at higher powers, but withmore solutions that may accommodate next generation electric vehicledevelopment. With larger batteries, more vehicle types and higher power drivingdemand, development continues to happen within and around these standards. What’s key within this continued evolution is the brilliancethat standards can offer: backwards and forwards compatibility, ensuring thatthe vehicles of today and the vehicles of tomorrow can leverage the samecharging assets, regardless of power delivery capability or new feature setswithin the vehicle, the charger, or beyond to the grid.Proprietary protocols are not open standardsThe most well-known example of a proprietary chargingprotocol would be the Tesla Supercharging protocol, which serves many satisfieddrivers around the world. However, a proprietary protocol is not an openstandard, and therefore remains under the ownership, control and potentiallicensing of its owner. This makes the protocol exceedingly difficult to implementfor any other vehicle maker or charging operator. There are a number of commercial complications and marketrisks around having charging technology patents owned, developed and improvedupon by only one market participant. While it may be nice to imagine a worldwhere proprietary protocols can be freely adopted, few strategic thinkers inthe most successful companies would agree to implement a core technology thatis entirely controlled by their competitor. This is especially true when openstandards are readily available to give every market player full control overtheir own product developments, market approaches and future roadmaps. Thelatter scenario is the healthiest for any industry as it allows for the bestideas to emerge from across many companies and stakeholders.Safety, reliability and usabilityMost importantly, standards offer the inherent advancementof safety. Standards are collaborative, reviewable, and incorporate optimaldesigns and best industry practices. Standards are usually developed byinterdisciplinary teams with a wide net of talent and collective knowledge,rather than the isolated proprietary solution that carries the complications ofpatents, licensing fees and legal issues that dampen markets rather than pushthem farther.In a field like electrical technology, where standardizationis expected and esteemed, proprietary solutions will always be difficult topush and proliferate. Standards are the language of engineers, vehicle makers,electricians, utilities, municipal and regulatory professionals. These folksare often the gatekeepers to infrastructure deployment and must be assured thatall aspects of charging systems, not just the point of connection to the grid,but to the vehicle as well, have been carefully studied, developed andimplemented safely. This is especially critical with high power electricalcharging systems, where the risk of unsafe, unreliable and poorly designedproducts will mar the reputation of an emerging market. When there are fewerunique systems to worry about, market players who are chartered with reliableservice and maintenance may also improve uptime through repeatable deploymentbest practices.Driving down cost while building trustAs more companies invest in developing battery innovations,new vehicles and applications, charging standards aid lower R&D costsacross the entire industry. When R&Dteams are not tasked with solving the same problem over and over, they can bringtheir energy, talent and investment to the next challenge to be solved whilemaking better and lower cost products for consumers.Standards also create compatibility, which builds trust andtherefore adoption, pushing the market forward. Consumers want to know thatwhen they buy a vehicle, the charging systems they rely on today on will worktomorrow. When charging infrastructure is nurtured across disciplines andcoupled with the safest possible implementation, those investing in it can feelmore secure that their charging deployments will meet the needs of all EVdrivers, creating a healthier business model for all.Scaling EV buses, trucks and fleetsThe economics of electric fleet operations are compelling,especially among high utilization vehicles including fleet-based cars, buses,delivery vans, varied trucks and semis. Lower energy costs, reduced maintenanceand longer lifetime of an electric drivetrain – along with lower noise and GHGemissions make a compelling case for electrifying every fleet.Many electric vehicle applications are still emerging.Fortunately, there are existing open industry standards that are readilyavailable and continuously cultivated through their working groups. Still, insome cases there are still proprietary charging solutions lingering that couldlimit choice and innovation.When a transit agency, fleet operator or shared mobilityservice is investing in electric vehicles, they need to know that when theychose a vehicle or charging system, they can grow their fleet under a flexibleumbrella of technology. They must be able to choose from a slate of suppliersand not be locked into a single technology, product or solution. The e-mobilitymarket is moving too quickly with too many innovations not to have choice andfuture-proof growth baked into long-term planning.It’s no secret that utilization is one of the most importantways in which charging infrastructure investments can deliver commercial value.When the most possible vehicles can use common charging systems, those assetshave optimized potential. However, when multiple charging systems must beprocured for each and every vehicle make, the cost to deploy becomesexponentially larger while utilization drops.Non-road EVsTransportation electrification is showing strong signs oftaking even more paths, whether over the water, up in the air or deepunderground. Additionally, there are many well-matched EV applications forelectric vehicles for warehouses, factories, airports and resorts. As theseindustries can get their arms around charging standards, that effort will be asignificant driver for turning new vehicle electrification innovations intocommercial and operational success. If these diverse industries can leverageexisting common standards, much of the safety, quality and cost advantages willbe gained far more quickly for every vehicle, fleet and user.There are existing cases where a proprietary charging systemmay only be applicable for a certain class and make of vehicle, but common,open standards will give life to new transport applications and wider EVadoption. Even when vehicle designs may look and act very differently from oneanother, the common aspects of charging, from physical connection points tocommunication protocols, can be adopted and give wings to innovation, businessefficiencies, and ultimately cleaner transportation solutions for all.Charger to networkThe open exchange of data between charging stations withnetworks, back-end payment systems and enterprise-wide operational data isanother critical aspect to public and private charging infrastructure. Siteowners and operators must ensure their charging assets serve drivers andvehicles while providing valuable data and revenue back to sites and assetowners. Without these operational aspects working seamlessly, a site may be saddledwith a stranded asset that has limited value and functionality to users.Any investment in EV charging networks should favor the mostinteroperable, open communication protocols between charger and back-end toensure funding stakeholders do not find their vendor choices restricted by acost-prohibitive or poorly performing system. EV charging infrastructure plansshould always have a full selection of hardware vendors as well as payment andservice providers for the most choice. If any of those vendors fail to perform,the site host has the choice to find a better provider without the costlyheadache of replacing with a completely new system.Open networks: competition is good for allNew and emerging industries will almost always go through anebb and flow of market entrants, competing technologies and next generationproduct development. Well-fostered competition is ideal for market health andconsumer choice. Closed or proprietary networks inhibit that positive evolutionby limiting the ability to integrate and grow with the latest technologies andthe most reliable suppliers. Open networks allow for widest choice, mostflexible implementation, and most importantly, room to improve with the latestproduct developments in an innovative and fast-moving market.The widely implemented Open Charge Point Protocol (OCPP) isan example of an application protocol that enables communication between acharging station via connectivity and any network operation or back-end. OCPP was not started, developed orspecifically affiliated with any private infrastructure company. It operates asa license-free, scalable and easy to use solution, falling under the openstandards umbrella in terms of collaborative industry development and free use.What is a proprietary network?A proprietary network is a network that operates in a closedsystem, locking together the hardware with back-end payment and data managementbusiness model. These models rarely allow site hosts nor infrastructureinvestors the ability to choose their own hardware or replace malfunctioninghardware with their technology choice. Further, these models may also limitaccess or ownership of charging station data. These models are often presented as ‘turnkey’ or ‘simple todeploy’ to those interested in installing charging infrastructure, but theybring a much greater risk of lost assets should the hardware, software oroperator not perform; or worse, not remain in business at all.Some proprietary networks will say that they use open protocolsto enable communications with a certain hardware selection; but for theorganization funding or hosting the stations, they remain locked into a closednetwork. This leaves owners with no option to evaluate later and switch to thelatest technology, features and payment plans of their choice; or carry theburden of replacing expensive hardware.DC fast charging and interoperabilityThe issue of network interoperability is magnified for DCfast charging infrastructure systems. These are not throwaway boxes that can beeasily replaced should there be performance issues. Fast charging technology isspecialized and requires attention to quality, reliability and long-termperformance. When providers implement cheaply made solutions, the risk ofstranded assets and lost investment is even higher. In addition, DC power delivery paradigms and related vehicledevelopment will continue to evolve as more EV drivers hit the road.Infrastructure investors and hosts alike will demand the flexibility that comeswith open networks to ensure these systems are adequate, competitive andredundant for the drivers who rely on them to get home safely each day. SummaryAs the EV industry matures, interoperability will continueto remain important to the development of vehicle communications to charger,network and grid. We can expect to see further advancements in thecommunication systems between electric vehicles and grid connected assets.Intelligent power supply is an emerging technical and commercial opportunity carryingmany benefits across the vehicle electrification landscape and will undoubtedlydemand open and harmonized communication standards. While EV infrastructure is still a relatively new and quickly evolving space, regardless of which vehicles and charging innovations will capture and drive the market, open standardization will always be the optimal approach for rolling out the most future-proof and reliable charging infrastructure. The interoperability strategy can deliver the most returns for those who will fund, deploy, operate and use these critical assets in the years to come – for the most convenient, reliable and clean transportation.Sponsored by ABB.Download a PDF version of this article.